When the developing technology of film crossed paths with the modernist avant-garde movement, there were extraordinary results. While Russian constructivists like Sergei Eisenstein and Dziga Vertov were experimenting with film techniques under the guise of making Soviet propaganda films, the European avant-garde also began playing wildly with the medium.
The power of the documentary image together with the "radical juxtapositions of time and space allowed by montage" were irresistible factors for artists like Man Ray, Albert Kahn and Luis Bunuel [source: Nichols]. Perhaps the most famous work to come out of that period is "Un Chien Andalou," a 1929 collaboration between Salvador Dali and Luis Bunuel. Nearly a century later, the surrealist film still holds the power to shock. A scene involving a razor and an eyeball has been called "the most notorious opening sequence in movie history" [source: Hoberman].
Made just a year later, its sexually explicit sequel, "L'Age d'Or," was so incendiary it provoked riots when screened and was quickly banned by the Paris police. If nothing else, the response serves as an early demonstration of film's power as an artistic medium [source: Hoberman].
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- Betts, Ernest. "Heraclitus or the Future of Films." E.P. Dutton. 1928. (Jan. 22, 2015) https://archive.org/stream/heraclitusorfutu00bett#page/n93/mode/2up/search/eloquent+and+vital+silence
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- Brown, Geoff. "Criticism: New challenge: sound and documentary." BFI screenonline. 2014. (Jan. 22, 2015) http://www.screenonline.org.uk/film/criticism/criticism6.html
- Crafton, Donald. "The Talkies: American Cinema's Transition to Sound, 1926-1931." University of California Press. 1999. (Jan. 20, 2015) http://books.google.ca/books?id=KFB_oT-jupQC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false
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- Gomery, Douglas. "Economic Struggle and Hollywood Imperialism: Europe Converts to Sound." Yale French Studies (1980): 80-93. (Jan. 19, 2015)
- Hagopian, Kevin. "Ben-Hur." New York State Writers Institute, State University of New York. (Jan. 19, 2015) http://www.albany.edu/writers-inst/webpages4/filmnotes/fnf98n5.html
- Hanssen, F. Andrew. "Vertical Integration During the Hollywood Studio Era." Montana State University. 2007. (Jan. 21, 2015) http://www.montana.edu/econ/seminar/Archive/hanssen8222007.pdf
- Hoberman, J. "A Charismatic Chameleon: On Luis Buñuel." The Nation. April 25, 2012. (Jan. 23, 2015) http://www.thenation.com/article/167559/charismatic-chameleon-luis-bunuel
- Hodgins, Eric. "Amid Ruins of an Empire a New Hollywood Arises." Life. June 6, 1957. (Jan. 21, 2015)
- Hopson, Charlotte. "Why did European avant-garde artists turn to film in the 1920s?" Acedemia.edu. (Jan. 22, 2015) https://www.academia.edu/1439806/Why_did_European_Avant-Garde_artists_turn_to_film_in_the_1920s
- Johnson, Glen. "Eisenstein & montage." Montage theory: Eisenstein, Vertov, & Hitchcock. Catholic University of America. (Jan. 19, 2015) http://faculty.cua.edu/johnsong/hitchcock/pages/montage/montage-1.html
- Manley, Brian. "Moving Pictures: The History of Early Cinema." ProQuest Discovery Guides. July 2001. (Jan. 14, 2015) http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/film/review.pdf
- Nichols, Bill. "Documentary Film and the Modernist Avant-Garde." Critical Inquiry, Vol. 27, No. 4. University of Chicago Press. 2001. (Jan. 22, 2015) http://www.columbia.edu/itc/film/gaines/documentary_tradition/Nichols_Documentary and Avant-Garde.pdf
- Pingeulo, Fernando M. and Timothy D. Cedrone. "Morals? Who cares about Morals? An examination of morals clauses in talent contracts and what talent needs to know." Seton Hall University School of Law Journal of Sports and Entertainment Law. 2009. (Jan. 20, 2015) http://www.nmmlaw.com/pdf/FMP - Morals - Seton Hall - Nov. 2009.pdf
- Rothman, Jack. "Hollywood in Wide Angle: How Directors View Filmmaking." Scarecrow Press. 2004. (Jan. 21, 2015) https://books.google.ca/books?id=SPvfmur0mkkC&pg=PR15&lpg=PR15&dq=Hollywood+in+Wide+Angle:+How+Directors+View+Filmmaking&source=bl&ots=ZPNRMOivvE&sig=jxBNAHtgvKnkMSfItRrKd8oLWrc&hl=en&sa=X&ei=dF7AVLD-PNetyASPiYLwCA&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=Hollywood in Wide Angle: How Directors View Filmmaking&f=false
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