At the end of each inning the number of shoes is tallied.
The first task in scoring is counting up the live and dead shoes. Live shoes are shoes that landed within playable boundaries. Dead shoes are those that landed outside the pit area or somehow otherwise break a rule of the game, as well as -- and this will make sense in a minute -- shoes that are dead ringers.
There are two ways to score a game of horseshoes: counting points (called the count-all method) and the cancellation scoring method. Let's talk about how to score with count-all rules first.
In count-all scoring, each player has the chance to score a maximum of six points per inning. Live shoes will either be ringers, leaners or close to the stake. Ringers are horseshoes that land around the stake; ringers net you three points, the most points awarded in the game. Leaners are horseshoes that have landed vertically and are leaning against the stake rather than encircling it. Leaners are worth one point. Any horseshoe that lands within 6 inches (15.2 centimeters) of the stake is considered close to the stake and also counts as one point. If both your live shoes land closer to the stake than those of your opponent, you earn two additional points that inning (including if one of those shoes is a ringer). Some play a variation of this scoring method, where only ringers are awarded points. No points are awarded for dead shoes.
These aren't the only rules of the game, though -- there are also cancellation rules. Under cancellation rules you score points the same as in count-all but with a twist. In addition to earning points each inning for the live shoes you throw, you also have the chance to cancel out the points your opponent scores. How? Pitch the same game. For example, say your opponent throws a ringer, which should count as three points. If you, too, throw a ringer in your following turn during the same inning no points are awarded -- you cancel out each other's' points; this is called a dead ringer. The same cancellation throw rules apply to leaners and shoes close to the stake, as well. No points are awarded for dead ringers or any other tied shots.